New Product Line: NTrēons: “Newkome” Dendrons and Dendrimers:View Dendrimer Products
Through collaboration with Prof. Newkome, one of the pioneers of dendrimer technology, “Newkome dendrimers and dendrons” are now available commercially, through Frontier Scientific, Inc. These building blocks are distinguished from the already available PAMAM-type assemblies by their 1 -> 3 C-branching pattern, allowing for greater density of functional groups and facilitating a modular approach to the construction of new materials. The branching centers of our dendrimers and dendrons are three methylene units apart, allowing facile chemical manipulation of the termini without “overcrowding”. Our initial offerings include five dendrons, the branched building-blocks for dendrimer synthesis, two being 1-> 4 core-type dendrons, and four dendrimers, generations one and two in size possessing 12 and 36 termini, respectively. To date, numerous dendrons have been created in Prof. Newkome’s laboratories; as we grow and expand into this burgeoning new market our dendron selection will also grow. Please do not hesitate to contact us with inquiries about catalog items, custom synthesis, and comments concerning this new dendron-based product line.
Critical Design Parameters in Dendrimer Construction
There are two methods generally accepted for the synthesis of dendrimers: the convergent approach and divergent approach. The convergent approach corresponds to dendritic construction from the “outside in” towards a suitable core. In this protocol, the number of reactions required for dendron attachment and generational growth is constant. This is depicted in Scheme 1, using FSI dendron NTN 1963 and FSI core NTN 1960.1 A divergent synthesis is essentially the opposite building from the “inside out”; starting with a multi-functional core, dendrons are added sequentially, until the desired generation is obtained. In Scheme 2, a PAMAM core is linked with FSI dendron NTN 1962 forming poly(urea-based) dendrimer.2
The dendrimer/dendron product line from FSI offers opportunities for both convergent and divergent syntheses of NTrēon dendrimers, offering comparatively more sites of functionality than currently offered PAMAM dendrimers.
Table 1. Terminal Site comparison of NTrēons to PAMAM
|Generation||PAMAM Terminal Sites||(NAME) Terminal Sites|
*custom item, ask for pricing
A mix and match approach is also possible, as PAMAM type dendrimers can be divergently decorated with weisocyanate Z dendrons should more branching be desired, or conversely NTrēon dendrimers can be expanded with PAMAM units if fewer branches/terminal sites are desired. The “Newkome” dendrimer/dendron product line offered by FSI, combined with PAMAM-type dendrimers, and other already commercially available dendrons, is expected to greatly facilitate the creation of new utilitarian nanoscale materials.
Incorporation into Traditional Areas of Research
After discovery and development of dendrimeric polymers by Newkome, Tomalia, and Vögtle through the 70’s and 80’s, these unique globular molecules began to attract interest for potential use in a variety of applications due to the ease of integration with more mature areas of chemistry. These included nanotechnology, where independent functionalizable macromolecules might act as micro-factories for nanomachines capable of such phenomena as light-harvesting, red-ox catalysis, signal transduction, and electrical conduction. Medicinal chemists also perceived in dendrimers a new customizable vehicle for drug delivery, as well as functional medicinal polymers that could selectively compete for receptor sites for treatment of disease. In this field, dendritic MRI contrast reagents are also being explored because they can potentially provide better images due to their ability to encapsulate more of the MRI-active metals (gadolinium usually). Lastly, dendrimers are seeing use as modifiable additives, to break up clog-causing hydrates in oil pipelines, or as hyperbranched polyesters to improve material properties in synthetic fabrics, or coatings. Dendritic polymers are quickly becoming recognized as potential tools for solving problems and creating new inventions in the material, medicinal, and nanotechnology disciplines.
Modular Approaches to
For application references: specialty coatings13,14, sensors15-17, polymers and material property modification18-20, liquid crystals21
Pioneers and Milestones in the Field of Dendrimers
|P. J. Flory – Evidence for Branched-Chain
Macromolecules – 1941 – 1942 (Nobel 1974) 22,23,24
J.-M. Lehn – Stepwise Strategies for Synthesis of Marcocyclic Rings – 1973 (Nobel 1987) 25
F. Vögtle – Cascade Synthesis – 1978 26
R. G. Denkwalter – Lysine-dendrimer Patent – 1981 27, 28, 29
G. R. Newkome – First Modular Dendrimer Synthesis, First Reference to Unimolecular Micelles – 1985 30, 31, 32
D. A. Tomalia – First High-Generation Dendrimers based on Linear Monomers – 1985 33
J.-M. Fréchet – First Convergent Synthesis – 1990 34, 35
P. G. DeGennes – First Theoretical Study on Dendrimers – 1983 (Nobel 1991) 36
|J. S. Moore – Phenylacetylene Dendrimers – 1991 37
Wörner, Mülhaupt, De Brabander-van den
S. Masamune – Silicone-based Dendrimers
J. –P. Marjoral – Phosphorous-based
S. Zimmerman – Self-Assembly of
A. D. Schlüter – Dendronized-Polymers –
V. Balzani – Metallodendrimers – 1989 47,48,49
D. Seebach – Chiral Dendrimers – 1993 50
R. H. E. Hudson – DNA-based Dendrimers –
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